0000001899 00000 n The principles and imperatives of modern counterinsurgency provide guideposts for forces engaged in COIN campaigns. Letter from Iraq: The Lesson of Tal Afar, by George Packard, The New Yorker, April 10, 2006, The Colombian Miracle by Max Boot and Richard W. Bennett, The Weekly Standard, December 7, 2009, 28 Articles: Fundamentals of Company-Level Counterinsurgency by David Kilcullen, Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars, by Frank Hoffman, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Dr. Ucko and Dr. Egnell explore the lessons about counterinsurgency that we have learned during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. As John Paul Vann, an American adviser in Vietnam, said, "Security may be ten percent of the problem, or it may be ninety percent, but whatever it is, it's the first ten percent or the first ninety percent. Following the principles and imperatives does not guarantee suc­ cess, which is just one of the several paradoxes of counterinsurgency. Strikingly, Santa Cruz recognized that insurgencies are usually due to real grievances: "A state rarely rises up without the fault of its governors." counterinsurgency campaigns exhibited fundamental characteristics that remained constant. 1. What are some principles, which you have identified, that have not changed with the evolution of technology? 470 0 obj <> endobj endstream endobj 491 0 obj<>stream Counterinsurgency is the use of all elements of a nation's power—including not only combined-arms operations but also psychological, political, economic, intelligence, and diplomatic operations—to defeat an insurgency. FM 3-05.2, Foreign Internal Defense, September 2011. Counterinsurgency Principles for the Diplomat. July, 2008. The United States has a long but convoluted history of counterinsurgency, or COIN. 0000002614 00000 n 0000005789 00000 n The enclosed Allied Joint Publication AJP-3.4.4, Edition A, Version 1, ALLIED JOINT DOCTRINE FOR COUNTER-INSURGENCY (COIN), which has been "Irregular warfare is far more intellectual than a bayonet charge." �"�Gi���n�,�ahX��-����g�/� ��{�l�d�>��&2̈!�Ld�'�3M�*$0z� ? This infers a connection between this past decade of counterinsurgency, and the people’s wars of previous eras. This FMI establishes doctrine (fundamental principles and TTP) for military operations in a counterinsurgency environment. xref That is, the support of the people is the primary objective of a counterinsurgency campaign. Consequently, … 0000002766 00000 n Future combat leaders should heed Lawrence's injunction to study hard, especially when preparing for COIN—the most intellectually challenging realm of warfare. 0000003067 00000 n What enemy TTPs and environmental conditions can we incorporate into our training to improve our COIN proficiency? This manual continues the efforts of FM 3-24, Counterinsurgency, It is based on lessons learned from previous counterinsurgencies and contemporary operations. The third Marques of Santa Cruz de Marcenado(1684–1732) is probably the earliest author who dealt systematically in his writings with counter-insurgency. America's enemies understand that to fight the U.S. armed forces with conventional forces in the open field is tantamount to suicide—as Saddam Hussein discovered for himself. It is based on existing doctrine and lessons learned from recent combat operations. 0000014936 00000 n Second, once familiar with relevant doctrine, leaders should read books and articles that provide an overview of irregular warfare operations since ancient times as well as accounts of its evolution since the early 20th century. Most insurgencies utilize a combination of guerrilla and terrorist tactics—the former are hit-and-run attacks directed primarily at government security forces, the latter are attacks directed primarily against civilians—supported by propaganda and political organizing. 0000005213 00000 n Demarest, Geoffrey. This does not necessarily mean increasing the capacity of the host-nation government--if the government is widely seen as corrupt or illegitimate, making it more powerful can be self-defeating. In true Clausewitzian fashion, the first principle – the political aim – is regarded as the most important, with the others all being of … The security line of operations must be buttressed by attempts to win the trust of the populace and enhance the legitimacy of the counterinsurgents. 0000006447 00000 n Certain basic principles of counter-insurgency warfare have been well known since the 1950s and 1960s. The author concludes that a Viet Cong military victory in South Vietnam is not possible as long as the United States in supporting the government. Moreover, in the case of Afghanistan, heavy airstrikes and substantial US support to war lords did managed to topple the Taliban regime, but did not extinguish the insurgency. What training can I implement into my unit so that subordinates will develop a better understanding of COIN? The Taliban … Examples include the Philippine Insurrection, the Boer War, the Huk Rebellion, the Malay Emergency, the "Troubles" in Northern Ireland, the 1980s war in El Salvador, the "surge" in Iraq, the Second Intifada, and Colombia's campaign against the FARC in the past decade. 0000003369 00000 n trailer Combined-arms operations will be required to route insurgents out of their strongholds and to provide security against their incursions into population centers. ... What are some principles, which you have identified, that have not changed with the evolution of technology? Even though U.S. forces have left Iraq and there is a planned reduction in U.S. forces in Afghanistan, the era of counterinsurgency is far from over. 0000014300 00000 n Insurgencies typically have political or religious motivation but criminal gangs can also become powerful enough to imperil a state's authority. ATTP 3-37.31, Civilian Casualties Mitigation, June 2012. Block 2: Principles and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency Module 2.1 Population-centric and Enemy-centric COIN Module 2.2 NATO Principles of COIN Module 2.3 Paradoxes of COIN Block 3: Operational Environment Module 3.1 Elements of a Stable State Module 3.2 Elements of State Instability Module 3.3 Components and Analysis of the Operational Environment 0000003218 00000 n studied FM 3-24 and now understand the history, philosophy and theory of counterinsurgency. Counterinsurgency (COIN) operations are very complex and have been the topic of numerous books, articles, and debates over the last decade. The first law is that the population is paramount. 0000005456 00000 n How "self determination" and "services" are defined will vary from country to country and even from village to village. 0000008019 00000 n Some of that intelligence can be acquired by technical means, but there is no substitute for the situational awareness provided by security forces (whether American or host-nation) who are in daily contact with the population. It will be combined *�:����p��^� 'i����ߵ�y#p3J!�:�ā�k�Z�j(��5Vq���tm���|�ҹw�%ޠą��QZ��� 0000004224 00000 n Created Date: 2/15/2008 12:09:02 PM That said, the strategic significance of insurgency has ebbed and flowed over time. 0000014362 00000 n 0000004605 00000 n 5. This field manual establishes doctrine (fundamental principles) for tactical counterinsurgency (COIN) operations at the company, battalion, and brigade level. How do the principles … x�b```b``�d`c`�� Ȁ ���, ,YdE{.~��zN�}�%���ҟ�60`|B�F! Counterinsurgency is warfare; it is distinctly political, not primarily military; and it involves the people, the government, and the military. In his Reflexiones Militares, published between 1726 and 1730, he discussed how to spot early signs of an incipient insurgency, prevent insurgencies, and counter them, if they could not be warded off. Discussion of the criteria for measuring success in counterinsurgency. 0000008763 00000 n Counter-insurgency is normally conducted as a combination of conventional military operations and other means, such as propaganda, psy-ops, and assassinations. Irregular warfare is the oldest form of warfare—it long predates the rise of conventional armies in ancient Mesopotamia around 3000 BC. Counterinsurgency in the Hot Revolutionary War 49 Laws and Principles of Counterinsurgency Warfare 50 Strategy of the Counterinsurgency 55 6. endstream endobj 508 0 obj<>/Size 470/Type/XRef>>stream Without security nothing else will last." the principles of warfare remain the same. g�D�v֦R"N����o��Z���7�-s;�=�+W �p�K%a��n�aZ��������LUa�>}x=d�0T! Following the principles and imperatives does not guarantee success, which is just one of the several paradoxes of counterinsurgency. Principles of Counterinsurgency . What deficiencies have you identified in your own understanding of COIN? The strength of the relationship between these three groups generally determines the outcome of the campaign. As technology develops, how do you think insurgency and counterinsurgency will evolve? If there were no immutable laws or empirical formulas for counterinsurgency, there existed certain basic principles and traits that marked and will continue to mark successful, and unsuccessful, outcomes. Conversely leaders should also look at unsuccessful COIN campaigns to see what mistakes to avoid. There Additional counterinsurgency doctrine is being developed. �E��.0�xޢ/����� pWW�7���]�X��g$��+6,�y�0e��~D~��"��V�R|e����C�ϋ�x�L �%� �pr^�>֜�~����h�%�A-v��.wR��M�� �Z�����̶�b���*|�? --Field Marshal Sir Gerald Templer. At its core, a counterinsurgency is a battle for government legitimacy in the minds of its people. However, counterinsurgency is a strange and complicated beast. 0000014415 00000 n Maneuver Self Study Program Linkedin Page, Counterinsurgency Discussion Linkedin Page, This is an official U.S. Army Website sponsored by U.S. Army Maneuver Center of Excellence (MCoE), Moral, Ethical, H�l�MO�0���s�W$������p �R#q�{HS��nk������_��‰�y�}�u��@DB��D$e�B5B,�8� �Z�v�`ИA�ʆ�vO��*�;X�q>v}. 0000003672 00000 n ����,V��� (�000����' ��w�a�;> )�����^*��|��+��9$G�/��,�/dޓ�نAV�� �π���Z`mJp̠n�)������TR Qĉ�(����063�����|��ܭ.,�����i���^L b\�#g�Ε���Aj�0�J?��n%nx\�mx͋׻ The Army should use the lessons learned in Iraq and Afghanistan to more effectively combat the current war against sexual predators in the Armed Forces. 0000014631 00000 n Department of the Army Field Manual (FM) 3-24, Counterinsurgency, defines COIN as military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat an insurgency. (1) COIN is a combination of offensive, defensive, and stability operations spanning multiple agencies. Such unrestrained use of force characterised by outrageous airpower shooting and heavy attacks on the hamlets severely damaged their credibility with the rural population (Ong, 2007, p. 16). To understand counter-insurgency, one must understand insurgencyto comprehend the dynamics of revolutionary warfare. First, maneuver leaders should become familiar with the relevant Army doctrine, which in turn can provide leaders with a context for studying history. Indeed, counterinsurgency is a common function for most states and an inevitable one for empires. principles) in counter-insurgency warfare in order to optimize conditions for success on the battlefield as well as throughout the duration of the conflict. iӍ�u��HMnT��=):���֯d7'�E��+\��&z����8=�qE��@?�]�L�8�Nj�-��WSV��:=�B�6xR�Wt��x��9"8��]�#dz���1'��7Y�'I�N�0c��"r����O�m�닔�.��Q�f���X�U�=� �)?f 0000010997 00000 n fG1400263H the contrary, the US Army considered it its greatest technological advantage against the insurgents (Laqueur, 1998, p. 275). ]JKa��c*����idD�#���^PQ[b�;sd�G���j���ߨ$�?�=�3 ��o�8���Tdi�� International organizations, non-governmental organizations, and the news media are also likely to be present on the battlefield, and the successful commander must interact with them constructively, and if possible use them to achieve campaign objectives, even though they are outside the military chain of command. 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